The NIH Common Fund’s Harnessing Data Science for Health Discovery and Innovation in Africa (DS-I Africa) program will leverage data science technologies and prior NIH investments to develop solutions to the continent’s most pressing public health problems. Data drive scientific discovery. Recent technological advances, in Africa and around the world, mean researchers are collecting enormous volumes of data. The collection and analysis of data are fundamental activities that underpin the health field. Africa’s ability to fully extract useful knowledge from these data will lead to discoveries that can impact global health.